COVID-19 Research using C. elegans

Genetic Models for COVID-19 Research

InVivo Biosystems is ready to help you with your COVID-19 research! We offer our genetic expertise in the engineering of humanizations, fluorescence markers, luciferase, activity reporters, and conditional expression to help you interrogate drug and vaccine activity, binding interactions, mechanism of action, and more.

We can provide the following genetic models using C. elegans:

ACE2 Humanized Biosensor Model

  • This C. elegans line expresses the human ACE2 receptor fused with GFP under a ubiquitous promoter.  Upon treatment with Spike protein, the ACE2 receptor translocates from the cell surface to cytoplasmic vesicles.
  • This strain will help visualize the localization of the ACE2 receptor and whether drug treatment has disrupted this mechanism or whether RNA or DNA- encoding antigens and viral pseudotypes are successful in triggering it.

ACE2 Endocytosis Biosensor Model

  • This C. elegans line expresses the human ACE2 receptor fused with a pH sensitive GFP variant,  pHlorin,  under a ubiquitous promoter. The pHlorin biomarker fluoresces more strongly following endocytosis of the ACE2 protein into endosomes where there is a marked pH drop.
  • This strain can help researchers determine to what extent ACE2 is endocytosed and the dynamics of release of viral content into the cell. 

ACE2/ TMPRSS2 Double Humanized Model:

  • This C. elegans line expresses the human ACE2 receptor and the human TMPRSS2 protease under a ubiquitous promoter. The ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are each fused with one part of a split GFP (ACE2::GFP1-10 and TMPRSS2::GFP11).
  • This line enables the easy visualization of the colocalization of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. 

ACE2 Strain Longevity Platform

  • COVID-19 has a marked increase in severity in those with advanced age. C.elegans is a validated model organism to study longevity and aging.
  • We offer a Longevity Platform analysis in our ACE2 humanized line to experimentally test drugs and vaccine behavior during immune senescence. 

ACE2 Variant Analysis

  • We can rapidly induce point mutations in the canonical human ACE2 and TMPRSS2 sequences, enabling researchers to perform variant analysis in these genes in the Humanized line.  

Resources

Blog: Seeking new drugs against COVID-19. Read Now. >>

To search the pre-print literature on COVID-19, we recommend using the NIH's search tool.

The table below lists 300+ human genes whose protein products interact with specific SARS-CoV-2 proteins. In other words, these are genes with known interaction with human proteins. The list also includes these human genes' orthologs in zebrafish and C. elegans for your reference. You can read more about these genes here. If you are interested in studying these genes using genetically edited zebrafish or C. elegans models, please contact us.

Expand the table below to view all genes.

Human geneInteractive SARS-CoV-2 geneC. elegans orthologZebrafish ortholog
PRIM1Nsp1pri-1prim1
PRIM2Nsp1pri-2prim2
POLA1Nsp1pola-1pola1
POLA2Nsp1div-1pola2
COLGALT1Nsp1D2045.9colgalt1
PKP2Nsp1jac-1pkp2
PORNsp2emb-8porb
GIGYF2Nsp2C18H9.3gigyf2
EIF4E2Nsp2ife-4eif4e2
SLC27A2Nsp2acs-20slc27a2b
RAP1GDS1Nsp2rap1gds1
FKBP15Nsp2fkb-5si:ch73-199g24.2
WASHC4Nsp2Y53F4B.21washc4
TIMM10Nsp4tin-10timm10
TIMM10BNsp4tin-9.2timm10b
TIMM9Nsp4tin-9.1timm9
TIMM29Nsp4R04F11.5timm29
ALG11Nsp4algn-11alg11
NUP210Nsp4npp-12nup210
DNAJC11Nsp4dnj-9dnajc11a
IDENsp4F44E7.4ide
HDAC2Nsp5 C145Ahda-1hdac1
TRMT1Nsp5 C145Atrm-1trmt1
GPX1Nsp5 C145Agpx-3gpx1a
ATP13A3Nsp6catp-6atp13a3
ATP5MGNsp6asg-2atp5l
ATP6AP1Nsp6vha-19atp6ap1a
SIGMAR1Nsp6W08F4.3sigmar1
DCAKDNsp7T05G5.5dcakd
NAT14Nsp7nat14
SCARB1Nsp7scav-3scarb1
CYB5BNsp7cytb-5.1cyb5b
PTGES2Nsp7pges-2ptgesl
CYB5R3Nsp7T05H4.4cyb5r3
RAB18Nsp7rab-18rab18b
RAB14Nsp7rab-14rab14
RAB8ANsp7rab-8rab8a
RAB7ANsp7rab-7rab7a
RAB10Nsp7rab-10rab10
RAB5CNsp7rab-5rab5c
RAB2ANsp7unc-108rab2a
RAB1ANsp7rab-1rab1ab
LMAN2Nsp7ile-2lman2
GNG5Nsp7gpc-1gng5
GNB1Nsp7gpb-1gnb1b
NDUFAF2Nsp7Y116A8C.30ndufaf2
COMTNsp7comt-3comtb
HS2ST1Nsp7hst-2hs2st1a
QSOX2Nsp7F47B7.2qsox2
RALANsp7ral-1ralaa
RHOANsp7rho-1rhoab
MTARC1Nsp7
SCCPDHNsp7F22F7.2sccpdhb
SELENOSNsp7F26F4.9selenos
AGPSNsp7ads-1agps
TOR1AIP1Nsp7T09B4.2si:dkeyp-82a1.6
DNAJC19Nsp7dnj-21dnajc19
MOGSNsp7mogs-1mogs
ACSL3Nsp7acs-4acsl3b
FAM162ANsp7M05D6.6fam162a
LARP7Nsp8ssb-1larp7
MEPCENsp8Y17G7B.18mepce
MRPS5Nsp8mrps-5mrps5
MRPS27Nsp8mrps-27mrps27
MRPS25Nsp8mrps-25mrps25
MRPS2Nsp8mrps-2mrps2
SEPSECSNsp8secs-1sepsecs
ATE1Nsp8ate-1ate1
MPHOSPH10Nsp8Y75B8A.7mphosph10
NSD2Nsp8mes-4nsd2
DDX10Nsp8Y23H5B.6ddx10
HECTD1Nsp8hecd-1hectd1
NGDNNsp8lpd-2ngdn
NOL10Nsp8nol-10nol10
AATFNsp8Y73E7A.2aatf
SRP19Nsp8F37F2.2srp19
SRP54Nsp8F21D5.7srp54
SRP72Nsp8srpa-72srp72
CCDC86Nsp8Y40B1B.7si:ch211-217k17.7
NARS2Nsp8nars-2nars2
EXOSC2Nsp8exos-2exosc2
EXOSC5Nsp8crn-5exosc5
EXOSC3Nsp8exos-3exosc3
EXOSC8Nsp8exos-8exosc8
DCAF7Nsp9swan-2dcaf7
EIF4HNsp9drr-2eif4h
NUP54Nsp9npp-1nup54
NUP88Nsp9nup88
NUP62Nsp9npp-11nup62l
NUP214Nsp9npp-14nup214
NUP58Nsp9npp-11nup58
MAT2BNsp9ZC449.8mat2b
ZNF503Nsp9tlp-1znf503
FBN2Nsp9fbn-1fbn2a
FBN1Nsp9fbn-1fbn2b
FBLN5Nsp9fbn-1fbln5
SPARTNsp9spg-20sparta
MIB1Nsp9mib-1mib1
NEK9Nsp9nekl-1nek9
GTF2F2Nsp9gtf-2F2gtf2f2a
GFERNsp10F56C11.3gfer
GRPEL1Nsp10C34C12.8grpel1
ERGIC1Nsp10Y102A11A.6ergic1
AP2A2Nsp10apa-2ap2a1
AP2M1Nsp10dpy-23ap2m1b
TBCANsp11tbca-1tbca
RIPK1Nsp12ksr-1ripk1l
RBM41Nsp12rbm41
PRRC2BNsp12F52G3.1prrc2b
PLEKHA5Nsp12nab-1plekha5
PDZD11Nsp12lin-7pdzd11
MYCBP2Nsp12rpm-1mycbp2
LARP4BNsp12larp-5larp4b
CRTC3Nsp12crtc-1crtc3
AKAP8Nsp12akap8l
UBAP2LNsp12pqn-59ubap2l
UBAP2Nsp12pqn-59ubap2a
ZNF318Nsp12D1044.6znf318
ZC3H7ANsp12zc3h7a
BCKDKNsp12pdhk-2bckdk
USP54Nsp12usp54a
TYSND1Nsp12psmd-9tysnd1
TCF12Nsp12hlh-2tcf12
SBNO1Nsp12let-765sbno1
PPIL3Nsp12cyn-10ppil3
SLU7Nsp12K07C5.6slu7
GLANsp14gana-1gla
SIRT5Nsp14sir-2.3sirt5
IMPDH2Nsp14T22D1.3impdh2
NUTF2Nsp15ran-4nutf2
RNF41Nsp15trf-1rnf41
ARF6Nsp15arf-6arf6a
AKAP9Nsp13akap9
PRKACANsp13kin-1prkacaa
PRKAR2ANsp13kin-2prkar2aa
PRKAR2BNsp13kin-2prkar2b
PDE4DIPNsp13si:ch211-242b18.1
HOOK1Nsp13zyg-12hook1
GOLGA2Nsp13golg-2golga2
GOLGA3Nsp13golga3
GOLGB1Nsp13syp-1golgb1
GORASP1Nsp13Y42H9AR.1gorasp1a
GCC2Nsp13gcc-2LOC101886383
GCC1Nsp13gcc-1gcc1
FYCO1Nsp13ZK632.12fyco1a
HSBP1Nsp13hsb-1hsbp1b
USP13Nsp13usp-5usp13
MIPOL1Nsp13mipol1
TLE1Nsp13unc-37tle2b
TLE3Nsp13unc-37tle3b
TLE5Nsp13eya-1tle5
CITNsp13W02B8.2cita
TBKBP1Nsp13tbkbp1
TBK1Nsp13Y39G8B.5tbk1
GRIPAP1Nsp13F41H10.4gripap1
JAKMIP1Nsp13C14H10.2jakmip1
CLIP4Nsp13clip-1clip3
RDXNsp13erm-1msna
C1orf50Nsp13C08B11.9zgc:112255
ERC1Nsp13elks-1erc1a
CENPFNsp13hcp-1cenpf
CDK5RAP2Nsp13cdk5rap2
PCNTNsp13pcnt
CEP112Nsp13cep112
NINLNsp13T04F8.6ninl
CEP135Nsp13cep135
NINNsp13T04F8.6nin
CNTRLNsp13T23F2.2cntrl
CEP68Nsp13cep68
CEP250Nsp13lfi-1crocc2
CEP43Nsp13
CEP350Nsp13dnc-1cep350
GOLGA7SpikeY57G11C.33golga7
ZDHHC5Spikedhhc-8zdhhc5a
ALG5Orf3aalgn-5alg5
TRIM59Orf3aB0281.3trim59
HMOX1Orf3ahmox1a
VPS11Orf3avps-11vps11
VPS39Orf3avps-39vps39
SUN2Orf3aunc-84si:dkey-92f12.2
CLCC1Orf3aooc-3clcc1
ARL6IP6Orf3aarl6ip6
STOML2Orf3bstl-1stoml2
CWC27Ecyn-16cwc27
BRD2Ebet-1brd2a
BRD4Ebet-1brd4
SLC44A2Echtl-1slc44a2
ZC3H18Ezc3h18
AP3B1Eapb-3ap3b1a
FAM98ANtag-322fam98a
SNIP1NC32E8.5snip1
CSNK2BNkin-10csnk2b
CSNK2A2Nkin-3csnk2a2b
G3BP1Ngtbp-1g3bp1
G2BP2N
MOV10Neri-7mov10a
PABPC1Npab-2pabpc1a
RBM28Nrbm-28rbm28
LARP1Nlarp-1larp1
PABPC4Npab-2pabpc4
RRP9NT02H6.1rrp9
UPF1Nsmg-2upf1
RPL36Nrpl-36rpl36
DDX21Nmut-14ddx21
SAAL1Msaal1
AAR2MF10B5.2aar2
TARS2Mtars-1tars2
STOMMsto-2stom
PSMD8Mrpn-12psmd8
PMPCBMmppb-1pmpcb
PMPCAMmppa-1pmpca
PITRM1MC05D11.1pitrm1
INTS4MW04A4.5ints4
GGCXMggcx
FASTKD5MB0564.7fastkd5
FAM8A1MF48B9.8fam8a1a
ETFAMF27D4.1etfa
COQ8BMcoq-8coq8b
BZW2Mbzw2
ATP6V1AMvha-13atp6v1ab
ATP1B1Mnkb-3atp1b1a
AASSMaass-1aass
ACADMMacdh-8acadm
AKAP8LMakap8l
ANO6Manoh-1ano6
TUBGCP3Mtubgcp3
TUBGCP2Mgip-1tubgcp2
RTN4Mret-1rtn4a
YIFAM
REEP5Myop-1reep5
REEP6Myop-1reep6
SLC30A9MY71H2AM.9slc30a9
SLC30A7MY105E8A.3slc30a7
SLC25A21Mslc-25A21slc25a21
ECSITOrf9cY17G9B.5ecsit
NDUFAF1Orf9cnuaf-1ndufaf1
NDUFB9Orf9cC16A3.5ndufb9
ACAD9Orf9cacdh-12acad9
FAR2Orf9cfard-1si:dkey-97m3.1
WFS1Orf9cwfs1b
PIGOOrf9cpigo-1pigo
RETREG3Orf9cretreg3
UBXN8Orf9cH40L08.1ubxn8
NLRX1Orf9cnlrx1
TMEM97Orf9ctmem97
ERMP1Orf9cB0495.7LOC100330918
TAPT1Orf9cF26F2.7tapt1b
PIGSOrf9cpigs-1pigs
GPAA1Orf9cgpaa-1gpaa1
SLC30A6Orf9ctoc-1slc30a6
TMED5Orf9ctmed-1tmed5
SCAPOrf9cscp-1scap
BCS1LOrf9cbcs-1bcs1l
NDFIP2Orf9cndfip2
DPY19L1Orf9cdpy-19dpy19l1l
F2RL1Orf9cgnrr-4f2rl1.2
GHITMOrf9cK11H12.8ghitm
ABCC1Orf9cmrp-1abcc1
TMEM39BOrf9cD1007.5tmem39b
ALG8Orf9calgn-8alg8
FBXL12Orf8fbxa-219amn1
POGLUT3Orf8poglut3
PLEKHF2Orf8ZK632.12plekhf2
CISD3Orf8cisd-3.1zgc:110843
INHBEOrf8daf-7LOC100329520
GDF15Orf8tig-2LOC101886665
SMOC1Orf8smoc-1smoc1
NEU1Orf8neu1
PLATOrf8svh-1plat
POGLUT2Orf8poglut2
STC2Orf8W01A8.8stc2a
NPTX1Orf8nptx1l
POFUT1Orf8C15C7.7pofut1
HS6ST2Orf8hst-6hs6st2
MFGE8Orf8ddr-1mfge8b
ERP44Orf8erp-44.1erp44
CHPF2Orf8mig-22chpf2
EMC1Orf8emc-1emc1
DNMT1Orf8dnmt1
ITGB1Orf8pat-3itgb1a
ADAM9Orf8adm-2zgc:174164
PCSK6Orf8kpc-1pcsk5a
PLD3Orf8F09G2.8pld3
PUSL1Orf8Y73B6BL.29pusl1
IL17RAOrf8ilcr-1il17ra1a
GGHOrf8ggh
FKBP7Orf8fkb-7fkbp7
FKBP10Orf8fkb-4fkbp10b
PLOD2Orf8let-268plod2
COL6A1Orf8C16E9.1col6a1
PVROrf8him-4pvrl2l
LOXOrf8loxa
CHPF2Orf8mig-22chpf2
NPC2Orf8heh-1npc2
TM2D3Orf8C41D11.9tm2d3
ADAMTS1Orf8gon-1adamts1
SDF2Orf8R12E2.13sdf2
FOXRED2Orf8C01H6.4foxred2
TOR1AOrf8tor-2tor1
NGLY1Orf8png-1ngly1
HYOU1Orf8T14G8.3hyou1
SIL1Orf8sil1
ERO1BOrf8ero-1ero1b
UGGT2Orf8uggt-1uggt2
OS9Orf8F48E8.4os9
ERLEC1Orf8Y105E8A.2erlec1
EDEM3Orf8ZC506.1edem3
MTCH1Orf6mtch-1mtch2
NUP98Orf6npp-10nup98
RAE1Orf6rae-1rae1
HEATR3Orf7aheatr3
MDN1Orf7aF55F10.1mdn1
BAG5Orf9bbag5
PTBP2Orf9bptb-1ptbp2b
CSDE1Orf9bcsde1
DPH5Orf9bB0491.7dph5
CHMP2AOrf9bvps-2chmp2a
SLC9A3R1Orf9bnrfl-1slc9a3r1a
TOMM70Orf9btomm-70tomm70a
DCTPP1Orf9bdctpp1
MARK3Orf9bpar-1mark3b
MARK1Orf9bpar-1mark1
MARK2Orf9bpar-1mark2b
CUL2Orf10cul-2cul2
RBX1Orf10rbx-1rbx1
ELOBOrf10elb-1elob
ELOCOrf10elc-1elocb
ZYG11BOrf10zyg-11zyg11
PPT1Orf10ppt-1ppt1
TIMM8BOrf10ddp-1timm8b
THTPAOrf10thtpa
MAP7D1Orf10sdc-2map7d1a
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